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ENGAGE: Fossils over timeIntroduce acceptance to fossils (this is one approach; see beneath for an addition approach):Have some absolute fossils (and/or artificial copies) of a array of bacilli for acceptance to handle and share, and/or appearance pictures of fossils; a few models of some aged creatures, like dinosaurs and added aboriginal reptiles, would additionally accomplish it fun.

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Ask: “If you begin these fossils in some rocks, what questions would you ask? [list some of the questions asked, e.g., “what was it?” “when did it live?” “how old is it?”]If possible, acquaint them the ages of some of the fossils. Brachiopods and trilobites were abounding from about 400 to 300 actor years ago (mya). Some brachiopods are animate today, but trilobites charge be beforehand than 250 actor years (the aftermost of them died out in the Great Dying ­ end of Permian – aback 96% of all abyssal breed went extinct). Ammonite fossils were best abounding amid 250 and 65 mya (died out aback dinosaurs did). Dinosaur fossils charge be beforehand than 65 actor years (last non-avian dinosaurs went abolished then). Ancient bang and pre-whale fossils would be beneath than 55 actor years old. There are no accepted animal fossils beforehand than about 7 actor years.

As allotment of this, appearance the chic an continued adaptation of the chart: “Animals of the Past: Patterns in the Deposit Record,” point out how the altered above groups of vertebrates did not all arise at once, but separately, over several 100s of millions of years. Accent that there are NO fossils of mammals above-mentioned to about 220 mya (millions of years ago), NO reptiles above-mentioned to about 310 mya, NO fishes above-mentioned to about 500 mya.

Ask “how continued is 1 actor years? Any idea? What about a billion years? A thousand years? (Try this agreeable approach: appearance a dollar bill and ask “If one year = the array of this dollar bill, how aerial would a assemblage of a actor dollar-bills be? To the ceiling? Top of two adventure building? Breadth of our building? Breadth of football field? Two miles? Added than two miles?” If you didn’t ask this in a pre-test, you ability account these as “A, B, C…” choices on the board, and account the cardinal of calmly for anniversary guess. Or try a abstruse election in some classes. Chances are that the guesses will be wide-ranging, and acceptance can see this in a quantitative way.}

Let’s see if we can advance a bigger compassionate of those big numbers, and some above contest that happened so continued ago, and to see if there are any absorbing patterns in those events.

EXPLORE: Time and DistanceIntroduce the use of breadth or ambit to appearance time:Preparation: See Materials (and abounding advice begin in anniversary access used)

Presentation: Ask acid questions to get acceptance cerebration about time and distance:How can you call 1 actor years to someone? [usually rather ambiguous answers]How do we admeasurement time? [let acceptance reply: counting seconds, clock, sun, calendar]Can we attending at assertive distances for time? [distance from 11 to 12 on a clock, ambit from Sunday to Saturday on calendar, etc.; appearance a big agenda or two] Could we analyze distances to explain “1 actor years?” [yes]”How about a Time Machine… like a calendar!” [show a big calendar]. Doesn’t the agenda booty you backwards in time – and assiduously in time? Isn’t that what a Time Machine does?”Show on our agenda how anniversary day is about an inch advanced (show on aerial or LCD projector, with ruler, assuming anniversary day-length as one inch advanced on the calendar). [You may appetite to skip the afterward to save time; it aloof shows how abortive a agenda would be for barometer abysmal time. If you do skip it, aloof point out that a agenda won’t appointment for barometer “DEEP TIME!” – and skip bottomward to “A Different, Bigger Scale”]

[The inch is acclimated actuality for accord because it is added appropriately beyond than a cm. If the canicule on your agenda are added than 1″, acquaint chic “let’s acquire that anniversary day-square is 1 inch across.”]If we use one inch actuality as a acceptable length, how continued would a anniversary be? [7″][Show one inch and 7 inches on the cardboard tape.How abounding weeks in a year? [52], so how abounding inches for a year? [7 x 52 = 364 inches]Can you anticipate 364 inches? [not easy] So, how could you do that? [change to feet: 364″ X 1 ft./12″ = 30.3 feet]Roll out the band to the 30.3 bottom mark (~10 yards), or appearance that ambit in your classroom. (30.3 ft X 1 yd / 3 ft. = ~10 yards).So, on this scale, one year is about 10 yards, right? And, so, 10 years is …. [10×10= 100 yards].Ask “Where is there a abode breadth you can see 100 yards easily?” [football or soccer field]You are added than 10 years old…(you can allegedly bethink contest over the accomplished 10 years, right?) So you were built-in about a football acreage (fbf) ago (if 1 day is 1″), right? You are anniversary added than a football acreage in age!

How abounding fbf for 100 years? [10 fbf]…. 1000 years? [100 fbf], etc. Can you anticipate this absolute well? How far do you anticipate that would be (say in miles)? [100 fbf x 300′ =30,000’/5280’=~5.7 mi.] Do you anticipate a actor years would be accessible to visualize? How far do you anticipate that would be (say in miles)? [~5,700 miles: SF to Berlin, or ambit from SF to NY and back][By the way, inches, feet, yards and afar are acclimated actuality (rather than metric units) because of their acquaintance in the US, and the point actuality is to chronicle accustomed ambit with the alien numbers of abysmal time.]

As you can see, we are alive with distances that are allegedly not absolute accustomed with best of you. THEREFORE, LET’S TRY A DIFFERENT SCALE!:

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EXPLAIN: A DIFFERENT – BETTER – SCALE: A agenda calibration is aloof too big to advice us acquire absolutely abysmal time – abounding millions of years.So, “How about shrinking 1 year of your activity (‘I’m shrinking…!’) bottomward to the array of a $1 dollar bill [show them this]. If we do this, how blubbery is ten years (a assemblage of 10 $1 dollar bills)?” Appearance them that it is absolutely 1 mm (especially absorbing if you can use a agenda micrometer to appearance this, but a metric adjudicator will suffice). Note that 1 mm is additionally the array of a paper-clip wire. “What about 100 years – a animal lifetime? [show them a 1 cm assemblage of 100 $1 bills = $100]. Right; 10 x 1 mm = 10 mm = 1 cm.”

Have them acquisition 1 mm on their metric rulers, and attending at the wire of a ample cardboard clip]. Ask how abounding mm in a meter? [show beat stick.] If they don’t know, acquire them calculation mm in 1 cm [10], and cm in the beat [100], so 10×100 = 1000 mm in a meter]. How abounding years would that be? [10 x 1000 = 10,000 years].If 1 beat = 10,000 years, how abounding meters would be according to 100,000 years? [100,000 / 10,000 = 10 meters]; 1,000,000 years (1 actor years)? [100 meters]Right… it would booty 100 meters to according 1,000,000 years…. 1 actor years.What assemblage is a beat abutting to in English measurements? [1 yard; appearance them 1 criterion abutting to beat stick]. So 100 meters is about …. [100 yards – absolutely 110 yards], which you can anticipate as actuality the breadth of …. a FOOTBALL FIELD! [or soccer acreage if you prefer]. Absolutely from goal-post to goal-post, an American football acreage is 120 yards continued (108 meters).Now, if your lifetime so far is about 1mm, again a actor years is about a football acreage long, right? Abutting your eyes and anticipate a football field… Does that advice to anticipate a million? So, aback we allocution about a million, anticipate of a football acreage of dollar bills! (if 10 years of your activity were diminished to 1 mm.

Write bottomward (or show) this calibration adequation so the accomplished chic can see it as you advance “[show that array of wire in a “Jumbo” cardboard blow = 1mm]:* Almost ambit in miles, based on 100 beat football acreage (0.6 km = 1 mile)When we allocution about “one actor years ago” we can abridge that with “1 mya”

ELABORATE: APPLICATION: In adjustment for acceptance to body a acquaintance with the time/distances acclimated in this scale, they should absolutely artifice those distances on a calibration map of their area. You may appetite to authenticate this first, as follows, again acquire acceptance do the assignment. And the Student appointment can be adequately simple, with no calculations, or a bit added challenging, acute acceptance to account calibration dimensions. For accepting a appropriately scaled map of your area, see TimeMarker and Preparing Scaled Map in the Materials section.

TEACHER DEMO: Apprehension that we are now talking about 10s and 100s of millions of years, so we’ll appetite to construe football fields into afar on a map of your breadth to accord acceptance some abstraction of the amplitude of time involved. You will acquisition that all the above fossils, on this calibration will be beneath than about 40 afar away, a ambit that your acceptance acquire allegedly traveled. [You may appetite to acquire a ample map of your breadth and a ample circle-drawing ambit or two, e.g., a accepted pencil-compass and allegedly an old chalkboard ambit for best distances, or use a string.] Be able to mark off circles with radii that represent key “distances” in time, so the kids can acquisition landmarks (towns, adapted places, buildings, etc.) that they may acquire visited, and accordingly acquire some faculty of their distances. A Geologic Time Calibration blueprint with such distances for key contest in the geological past, based on the football acreage = 1 mya scale, is provided for you with this lesson. Note abnormally the vertical “Miles” columns (colored) that you – or, alike better, the students) can mark out on the map of your breadth (using the map calibration for distances). Afar are acclimated here, rather than kilometers, because best bodies in our country acquire resisted affective to metric, and are accordingly alien with it.

STUDENT ASSIGNMENT: Application a appropriately scaled map of your area, assuming a alternation of towns or added landmarks more-or-less accumbent for about 40 afar in one administration from your school, acceptance position a TimeMarker Scale, with its several key contest in geological time, so that they can acquisition accustomed towns or added landmarks whose distances accompany about with those key contest (mostly the ancient fossils for anniversary above bearcat group). The calibration is based on 10 years = 1 mm (or 1 actor years = a football field). Acceptance again almanac the name of anniversary boondocks (or landmark) on their Calibration Contest Worksheet tables, and acknowledgment the Altercation Questions there.

If you would like acceptance to appointment added carefully with the simple algebraic of scaling, and award the map distances for whatever scaled map you can provide, again CLICK HERE.

ASSIGNMENT DETAILS: To do this, acceptance use copies of maps of their breadth that acquire been downloaded from the internet, at adapted scales. For contempo contest (within about 4 miles, for 65 mya), a Google map with a calibration (lower larboard corner) barometer about 2 cm for 2000 ft would allegedly appointment best. For beforehand contest (scaled to about 30 afar for 500 mya), use a map breadth the calibration measures about 2 cm for 5 miles. For times extensive out to 4.6 billion years (276 miles), you’ll charge a map breadth the calibration measures about 2-3 cm for 50 miles. You may appetite to acquire 1 or two teams (pairs) alive on the “most distant” events, a brace added on the “most recent” events, and best of the pairs alive on the 65-550 mya range. Or aloof appearance continued (or projected) maps with the acute distances, so all teams will appointment with the 65-550 mya maps.

Detailed Teacher Preparation & Instructions for two approaches (Click on your alternative here):1. Acceptance use pre-made TimeMarker scales on pre-made maps (no calculations all-important – see archetype below).2. Acceptance account and artifice the Time Distances for anniversary accident on pre-made maps.

In either case, the article is to acquisition a accustomed “Special Place” amid at the ambit from academy associated with anniversary Time Distance. For adjacent distances (recent times), this could be their house, or a friend’s or relative’s house, a school, a accustomed store, or park, etc. For beyond distances, it could be a town, action park, theater, stadium, etc. These landmarks don’t charge to be absolute – aloof analytic abutting to anniversary Time Ambit from school.

See archetype of “Time Map” done for the SF Bay Area, with San Jose as the focus, and additionally the Time Map done application the TimeMarker band (for a academy in the San Jose area).(By the way, don’t anguish if the calibration bar on the TimeMarker Calibration is not absolutely 1.9 cm for 5 mi., or if the time-event credibility do not accede absolutely with that scale, as these abstracts may not consistently book out correctly. But that’s ok; almost ambit are absolutely satisfactory for accepting beyond the idea):

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And here’s an archetype of “Time Map” done for the SF Bay Area, with San Jose as the focus, application a ambit to book the altered time-distances:.

If time allows, or acceptance are interested, it would be adorning to artifice the “distance” to the alpha our solar arrangement (4.6 bya). Actuality is a Time Map of southern California assuming that ambit about to the 1/2 billion (500 mya) year amphitheater appearance the ancient (jawless) fishes in the aboriginal Cambrian.

PART 2: BACK TO THE FOSSILS: The History of Bearcat Fossils:

TO THE TEACHER: Acceptance should apperceive that best of the accustomed animals they apperceive about are vertebrates, and can be disconnected into bristles capital classes: fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. If not, it would be acceptable to analysis those groups, what they acquire in accepted [vertebrate traits], and what makes them different. Appearance pictures and models or active examples of anniversary group, and either accommodate the two-page “Vertebrate Patterns” advertisement for them to apprehend (homework), or airing them through the “What Are They?” and “Accumulating Traits” absolute on that handout, based on the abounding deposit record. Those two pages can be printed back-to-back on a distinct area to duke out.

BUILDING A “VERTEBRATES OVER TIME” DIAGRAMFor acceptance to appoint added acutely with how bearcat accession origins are staggered over massive amounts of time (many tens of millions of years), acquire your acceptance artifice those ancestry (earliest fossils for anniversary bearcat class) on a time filigree for the accomplished 530 actor years, alive the tic mark about 2 cm to the adapted for anniversary alternating emergence, from the ancient to the best recent.

A bald filigree for “Vertebrates Over Time” is provided, or you could use the able grid, with tic marks already in abode to save time. Instructions are accustomed on the advertisement (and below). You may appetite to allegorize with the PowerPoint slides provided. For fastest version, use the “Labeled Tics” grid; studentts artlessly draw vertical curve archetype the accession from its alpha to the present – except for the pre-mammals (most accessible for average academy use).

Next, acceptance characterization anniversary of those “firsts” with the name of that group. For example, the 500 mya mark would be labeled “1st Jawless Fish” – the 440 mya mark would be “1st Jawed Fish” – and so on. Use the “Accumulating Traits” table for this. In addition, if you like, acceptance could add a few of the key new ancestry associated with anniversary group. And acquire them apprehension how abounding millions of years anesthetized amid anniversary new emergence.

To appearance that anniversary accession (except one) continues to abide to the present, acquire acceptance draw vertical curve from anniversary tic mark up to the best contempo associates of that accession (top line). All but one will accommodated the “NOW” band at the top. Characterization anniversary vertical band with the name of that class. For an archetype of this process, appearance your acceptance slides 33, 34, and 35 in the PowerPoint presentation for this lesson.

See EPILOGUE below: Fossil: Agent of Jaws in vertebrates, beneath Extensions & Variations.

PART 3: USING INQUIRY to Analyze the Bearcat Deposit Pattern

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THE PROBLEM:Point out the stair-step arrangement of the altered times of actualization for anniversary bearcat class. Accent how there are NO fossils of any chic above-mentioned to (below) those ancient fossils appearance the time of emergence. Ask your chic “What does this staggered actualization advance about the accessible agent of anniversary class? Acquire all reasonable ideas, but actuality are some accessible responses (potential hypotheses):

HYPOTHESES:1. “Could all the vertebrates arise at one time, but the aboriginal fossils of some aloof haven’t been found?” [possible, but not likely, back deposit scientists acquire searched continued and adamantine in sediments of those ages, and there is a consistently bright absence of fossils of anniversary accession above-mentioned to the ancient anytime found].2. “Could anniversary aloof magically arise (or be created), one afterward the other?” [possible, but science can’t use abracadabra for an explanation, because accurate abracadabra can’t be tested.] 3. “Could anniversary chic acquire appear from one of the antecedent classes? [Possible, and testable, so go with this one]. Ask “If so, what affectionate of affirmation would strengthen that hypothesis?”

PREDICTIONS:Again, acquire all reasonable ideas. Acceptance may advance that new appearance in anniversary chic could aloof be modifications of agnate appearance in a antecedent class, so we could attending for 1) examples of stages of change in the fossils. They may additionally advance 2) that we could attending for examples of fossils with average ancestry – alleged “transitional fossils.” Or conceivably 3) some fossils may acquire a mix of appearance begin in both a antecedent chic and aboriginal in a after class, suggesting a bit-by-bit alteration from one to the other. Accommodate hints of these if acceptance acquire agitation authoritative testable predications.

On the added hand, ask what they would adumbrate if the antecedent is not correct. Their responses may include: 1) no capricious fossils would be found; 2) no affirmation of bit-by-bit changes in appearance of the fossils; 3) no examples of mixtures of old and new appearance in distinct fossils. If acceptance are not forthcoming, bead some hints appear these ideas.

TESTING the PREDICTIONS:Students can go online to chase for “Transitional Fossils” – or you can accommodate a alternative of adapted sites (see below) for acceptance to study. Acceptance will acquisition that some sites will affirmation that there are no capricious fossils, or if there are, they alone announce changes aural species. These are about consistently sites associated with Biblical or creationist interests, with their accurate motives, so acceptance should be alert of the estimated access followed by such groups. You could point out that their angle could be true, but they’re usually not testable, accordingly application them is not a advantageous way to go.

Different groups of acceptance could be assigned altered sites to abstraction (good appointment assignment), but be abiding to accommodate a few specific credibility to attending for and anticipate about, e.g., 1) Acquisition 2-3 acceptable examples of alternation of fossils that allegedly appearance alteration from one chic to another. Almanac the antecedent of the information, the names of the two classes in anniversary case, and account the accurate appearance that appearance step-wise change. 2) Be critical: Can you anticipate of any affidavit why those appearance ability not absolutely be capricious features? 3) Be able – as a aggregation – to altercate your allegation and abstracts with the class, It would be accessible to acquire a ample diagram or two to allegorize your abrupt presentation (always makes it added interesting). Conceivably aggregation associates could adapt a ample cartoon or two based on the best absorbing examples found.

Here are some advantageous sites to suggest:Transitional FossilsA few capricious fossils29 Evidences for Macroevolution: (click on account 4. Average and capricious forms – for acceptable examples). Taxonomy, Capricious Forms and the Deposit RecordTransitional Fossils – Wikipedia

There are additionally a few examples assuming alternation of capricious bearcat fossils abreast the end of the PowerPoint presentation with this lesson.

Evidence of the bit-by-bit accession of traits: Accord acceptance a adventitious to abstraction the advertisement sheet: “Accumulating Traits” to see how anniversary new chic artlessly adds a few new traits.

CONCLUSION:After acceptance acquire looked over the assets about capricious fossils, acquire a adumbrative from anniversary accession accord a abrupt arbitrary of their allegation to the class, forth with diagrams breadth possible. Afterwards, advance a chic altercation about whether there is acceptable affirmation (convincing examples of capricious forms) to abutment the antecedent – or not. Ask, “Is the antecedent accurate by the evidence, or not?”

FAMILY TREE: PHYLOGENY – – – – A Graphic Display of the Conclusion:Using the Vertebrates Over Time diagram, acquire your acceptance draw a abject band from anniversary tic mark to a hardly beforehand point in time on the anon above-mentioned vertical line, suggesting how anniversary alternating accession may acquire appear from the above-mentioned accession due to modifications of some appearance (as accurate in the deposit record). Assuming slides 36 to 43 in the PowerPoint would advice to allegorize those acceptable connections. Be abiding to accent that we acquire abounding capricious fossils that acutely appearance bit-by-bit changes amid the ancient associates of anniversary accession and in assertive hardly beforehand associates in the ahead absolute group, so their accepted connectedness is not bald speculation. You could appearance the Animals of the Accomplished diagram with the access that advance their phylogeny (see Teacher Materials).

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QUESTIONS ABOUT the RELIABILITY of GEOLOGICAL TIMEIf you can booty the time, it’s important that acceptance admit the aerial akin of aplomb we acquire in the absolute ages of fossils. See items 4 and 5 beneath the “Extensions and Variations” breadth below. Also, if acceptance claiming you on these issues, be abiding to acquire them apprehend the items begin HERE.

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